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Pediatric Pyloric Stenosis
Key Points About Pyloric Stenosis in Babies
- Pyloric stenosis is a problem that causes forceful vomiting in babies from birth to 6 months of age. It can lead to dehydration.
- In pyloric stenosis, the muscles in the stomach that connect to the small intestine thicken. This causes the opening of the pylorus to become narrow. This stops food from moving from the stomach to the intestine.
- Babies with this condition must have surgery to fix it.
- After surgery, most babies have no long-term problems from pyloric stenosis.
Pyloric stenosis is a problem that causes forceful vomiting. It affects babies from birth to 6 months of age. Symptoms usually start around 3 to 5 weeks of age. It can lead to dehydration. This condition is the second most common reason why newborns have surgery.
The pylorus is the lower part of the stomach that connects to the small intestine. In pyloric stenosis, the muscles in that part of the stomach enlarge. This causes the opening of the pylorus to get narrow. This stops food from moving from the stomach to the intestine.
Pyloric stenosis is a birth defect. This means that your child is born with it.
This condition may run in some families. It’s a multifactorial trait. This means that many things caused it. The factors are often both genetic and environmental.
Pyloric stenosis is 4 times more common in males than females.
A child is more likely to have this condition if the child:
- Takes certain medicines by mouth in the first 6 weeks of life. These medicines include antibiotics called azithromycin or erythromycin.
- Bottle-feeds early
- Has a family history of pyloric stenosis
- Is a boy, especially firstborn
- Is Caucasian
- Has a mother who smokes
- Is premature
The most common symptom is forceful, projectile vomiting. This kind of vomiting is different from spit-up or a wet burp. Large amounts of breastmilk or formula are vomited. It may go several feet across a room.
Your baby’s vomit may look curdled. This is because the milk stays in the stomach and doesn’t move to the small intestine. The stomach acid curdles it.
Other symptoms may include:
- Weight loss
- Being very hungry despite vomiting
- Lack of energy
- Fewer bowel movements
- Frequent stools that contain mucous
A baby with pyloric stenosis is often very hungry and wants to eat.
The symptoms of this condition may be similar to symptoms of other health problems. Make sure your child sees their health care provider for a diagnosis.
Your child’s health care provider will check their health history. They will also give your child an exam. Your child may need tests to diagnose pyloric stenosis.
These tests check if your child is dehydrated or has mineral imbalances.
This test uses sound waves to show images of your child’s internal organs and of blood flow through various vessels. And it may show if the pylorus muscles are thickened.
This test shows images of your child’s internal tissues, bones and organs.
Upper gastrointestinal (GI) series
An upper GI series looks at the organs in the upper part of your child’s digestive system. These include the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine. For this test, your child will swallow barium. This is a metallic liquid that coats the inside of the organs. This helps them show up on an X-ray. Then your child’s health care provider will take an X-ray of these organs.
Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.
Children with this condition must have surgery. But your child’s dehydration and mineral imbalances may need to be treated first. Water and minerals can be replaced through intravenous (IV) fluid.
Once your baby is no longer dehydrated, they will have surgery. Your child will need anesthesia. Their surgeon will make a small cut (incision) above your baby’s navel. Then the surgeon will fix the pyloric muscle.
Your baby will stay in the hospital for two to three days. Most babies get better quickly after surgery. Your baby will likely be able to drink only clear liquids such as an electrolyte drink at first. But feedings are often started within four hours of the procedure.
Babies may still vomit for several days after surgery. This is because of swelling of the surgical site of the pyloric muscle. The swelling often goes away within a few days.
Most babies will be able to have normal feedings by the time they leave the hospital.
This condition can cause dehydration. When babies vomit often, they don’t get enough fluids to meet their nutritional needs. Minerals that the body needs are also lost through vomit. These include potassium and sodium. Babies who are dehydrated and don’t have enough minerals can get sick very quickly.
Pyloric stenosis can also cause weight loss. A baby who vomits most of or all of their feedings won’t gain enough weight to stay healthy.
Babies who have surgery for this condition often have no long-term problems. Pyloric stenosis usually doesn’t reoccur.
Call your child’s health care provider right away if your baby has forceful, projectile vomiting.
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