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Pediatric Diabetes, Type 1 and Type 2
What is diabetes mellitus?
Diabetes is a condition in which sufficient amounts of insulin are either not produced, or the body is unable to use the insulin that is produced. Diabetes can be defined as a metabolic disorder because the disease affects the way the body uses food to make glucose, the main source of fuel for the body. Diabetes may be the result of conditions such as genetic syndromes, chemicals, medications, malnutrition, infections, viruses or other illnesses. The three main types of diabetes include:
- Type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks the cells that produce insulin, resulting in either no insulin or a low amount of insulin. People with type 1 diabetes must take insulin daily in order to live.
- Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a result of the body's inability to make enough, or to properly use insulin. Type 2 diabetes may be controlled with diet, exercise and weight loss, but it may also require oral or injected medication and/or insulin injections.
- Gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is a condition in which the glucose level is elevated and other diabetic symptoms appear during pregnancy when the woman has not previously been diagnosed with diabetes. In many cases of gestational diabetes, all diabetic symptoms disappear following delivery.
Type 2 diabetes is commonly preceded by prediabetes. In prediabetes, blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be defined as diabetes. However, many people with prediabetes develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years, states the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Prediabetes also increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. With modest weight loss and moderate physical activity, people with prediabetes can delay or prevent type 2 diabetes.
For glucose to be able to move into the cells of the body, the hormone insulin must be present. Insulin is produced in the pancreas and is normally readily available to move glucose into the cells. However, in people who have diabetes, either the pancreas produces too little or no insulin or certain cells in the body do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This causes a build up of glucose in the blood, which passes into the urine where it is eventually eliminated, leaving the body without its main source of fuel.
Although often misdiagnosed initially as the more common type 1 or type 2 diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a group of diseases characterized by inherited early-onset diabetes (usually in adolescence or early adulthood) from a single gene mutation.
Severity of the diabetes symptoms associated with MODY vary depending on the type of MODY diagnosed. MODY 2 appears to be the mildest form of the disease, often only causing mild hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance. MODY 1 and 3 may require treatment with insulin, much like type 1 diabetes. MODY accounts for about 1-5% of all cases of diabetes in adults in the U.S. Family members of people with MODY are at greatly increased risk for the condition. MODY should be considered when three successive generations in a family have been diagnosed with mild diabetes (not requiring insulin) before age 25 and appear neither obese nor significantly insulin-resistant.
For the Bassler family, this past spring was filled with big changes and new learnings about type 1 diabetes. For Lakin, it was about learning to live with her disease.
Our Childhood and Adolescent Diabetes Program is one of the largest pediatric diabetes program in the Mid-Atlantic region, providing care for children and young adults from Washington, D.C., Maryland and Virginia.
Learn about bariatric (weight-loss) surgery for children and teens at our teen-centered Bariatric Surgery Program.
Learn more about the Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes which is a nationally recognized leader in treating a variety of endocrine disorders.
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