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Type 2 Diabetes Referral Guidelines

Prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes present with elevated blood glucose. Unlike patients with Type 1 diabetes who have deceased insulin production, patients with prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes have high insulin levels in order to overcome underlying insulin resistance.

Prediabetes and diabetes are not completely separate entities, but more of a spectrum of the same condition cause by insulin resistance and relative beta cell failure. Patients with prediabetes are able to have increased insulin production, which allows them to maintain blood glucose below diabetes range. Overtime the beta cells fail, insulin production decreases and blood glucose rises progressively into the diabetes range.

Risk factors include being overweight or obese, a family history of diabetes, a mother with gestational diabetes during the child’s pregnancy, an at-risk ethnic background and signs of insulin resistance such as acanthosis nigricans.

Diagnosis is made based on blood glucose levels and HbA1c.