What is chickenpox?
Chickenpox is a highly infectious disease, usually associated with childhood. By adulthood, more than 95% of Americans have had chickenpox.
The disease is caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a form of the herpes virus. Transmission occurs from person-to-person by direct contact or through the air.
Chickenpox most commonly occurs in children between the ages of 5 and 9. In the US, in areas with a large number of children in daycare settings, chicken pox in children between the ages of 1 and 4 is common.
What is the chickenpox vaccine?
Since 1995, a chickenpox vaccine has been available for children 12 months of age and older. Adolescents and adults who have never had chickenpox can also get the vaccine. The vaccine has proven very effective in preventing severe chickenpox.
The Center for Disease Control & Prevention’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend that all children be vaccinated with the chickenpox vaccine between 12 and 18 months of age.
A booster vaccination is recommended again between 11 and 12 years of age. Many schools now require vaccination prior to entry into preschool or public schools.
What are the symptoms of chickenpox?
Symptoms are usually mild among children, but may be life threatening to infants, adults and people with impaired immune systems.
The following are the most common symptoms of chickenpox. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
- Fatigue and irritability one to two days before the rash begins
- Itchy rash on the trunk, face, under the armpits, on the upper arms and legs, and inside the mouth
- Feeling ill
- Decreased appetite
- Muscle and/or joint pain
- Cough or runny nose
The symptoms of chickenpox may resemble other skin problems or medical conditions. Always consult a physician for a diagnosis.
How is chickenpox spread?
Once infected, chickenpox may take 10 to 21 days to develop. Chickenpox is contagious for one to two days before the appearance of the rash and until the blisters have dried and become scabs, which usually happens within four to five days of the onset of the rash.
Children should stay home and away from other children until all of the blisters have scabbed over. Family members who have never had chickenpox have a 90 percent chance of becoming infected when another family member in the household is infected.
How is chickenpox diagnosed?
Chickenpox is usually diagnosed based on a complete medical history and physical examination of the child. The rash of chickenpox is unique, and usually a diagnosis can be made from a physical examination.
What is the treatment for chickenpox?
The specific treatment for chickenpox will be determined based on:
- The child's age, overall health, and medical history extent of the condition
- The child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
- Expectations for the course of the condition child or parent’s opinion or preference
The treatment for chickenpox may include:
- Acetaminophen for fever (DO NOT GIVE ASPIRIN)
- Antibiotics for treating bacterial infections
- Calamine lotion (to relieve itching)
- Antiviral drugs (for severe cases)
- Increased fluid intake (to prevent dehydration)
- Cool baths with baking soda or Aveeno (to relieve itching)
Children should not scratch the blisters, as this can lead to secondary bacterial infections. Keep the child's fingernails short to decrease the likelihood of scratching.
What is immunity from chickenpox?
Most individuals who have had chickenpox will be immune to the disease for the rest of their lives. However, the virus remains dormant in nerve tissue and may reactivate, resulting in herpes zoster (shingles) later in life.
Occasionally a secondary case of chickenpox does occur. Blood tests can confirm immunity to chickenpox in people who are unsure if they have had the disease.
What complications are commonly associated with chickenpox?
Complications can occur from chickenpox. Those most susceptible to severe cases of chickenpox are infants, adults, pregnant women (unborn babies may be infected if the mother has not had chickenpox prior to pregnancy), and people with impaired immune systems. Complications may include:
- Secondary bacterial infections
- Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain)
- Cerebellar ataxia (defective muscular coordination)
- Transverse myelitis (inflammation along the spinal cord)
- Reye syndrome (a serious condition which may affect all major systems or organs)