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Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn
Prevention and Risk Assessment
What causes transient tachypnea of the newborn?
It is thought that slow absorption of the fluid in the fetal lungs causes TTN. This fluid makes taking in oxygen harder and the baby breathes faster to compensate.
Who is affected by transient tachypnea of the newborn?
Only a small percentage of all newborns develop TTN. Although premature babies can have TTN, most babies with this problem are full-term. The condition may be more likely to develop in babies delivered by cesarean section because the fluid in the lungs does not get squeezed out as in a vaginal birth.
What are the symptoms of transient tachypnea of the newborn?
The following are the most common symptoms of transient tachypnea of the newborn. However, each baby may experience symptoms differently.
- Rapid breathing rate (over 60 breaths/minute)
- Grunting sounds with breathing
- Flaring of the nostrils
- Retractions (pulling in at the ribs with breathing)
The symptoms of TTN may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your baby's physician for a diagnosis.
How is transient tachypnea of the newborn diagnosed?
Chest x-rays are often used to help diagnose TTN. On x-ray, the lungs show a streaked appearance and appear over-inflated. However, it may be difficult to tell whether the problem is TTN or another kind of respiratory problem such as hyaline membrane disease. Often, TTN is diagnosed when symptoms suddenly resolve by the third day of life.
How is transient tachypnea of the newborn treated?
Specific treatment for transient tachypnea of the newborn will be determined by your baby's physician based on:
- Your baby's gestational age, overall health and medical history
- Extent of the condition
- Your baby's tolerance for specific medications, procedures or therapies
- Expectations for the course of the condition
- Opinion or preference
Treatment may include:
- Supplemental oxygen given by mask on the baby's face or by placing the baby under an oxygen hood
- Blood tests (to measure blood oxygen levels)
- Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) – a mechanical breathing machine that pushes a continuous flow of air or oxygen to the airways to help keep tiny air passages in the lungs open.
Tube feedings may also be necessary if the baby's breathing rate is too high, because of the risk of aspiration of the food.
Once TTN goes away, the baby usually recovers quickly and has no increased risk for additional respiratory problems.