Omphalocele

What is an omphalocele?

An omphalocele is a birth defect, which is an abnormality that occurs before birth as a fetus is forming in its mother's uterus. Some of the abdominal organs protrude through an opening in the abdominal muscles in the area of the umbilical cord. A translucent membrane covers the protruding organs.

The omphalocele may be small, with only a portion of the intestine protruding outside the abdominal cavity, or large, with most of the abdominal organs (including intestine, liver, and spleen) present outside the abdominal cavity. Further, the abdominal cavity itself may be small due to underdevelopment during pregnancy.

Prevention & Risk Treatment

Prevention & Risk Treatment

What causes an omphalocele?

It is not known what causes omphalocele. Steps that normally happen in the development of the abdominal organs and muscles simply did not happen properly. It is not known to be caused by anything the mother did during pregnancy.

Many babies born with an omphalocele also have other abnormalities.

Why is an omphalocele a concern?

Since some or all of the abdominal organs are outside the body, infection is a concern, especially if the protective membrane around the organs breaks. Also, an organ may lose its blood supply if it becomes pinched or twisted. A loss of blood flow can damage the affected organ.


Diagnosis

Diagnosis

How is an omphalocele diagnosed?

Omphalocele can often be detected on fetal ultrasound in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. A fetal echocardiogram (ultrasound of the heart) may also be done to check for heart abnormalities before the baby is born.

After birth, the omphalocele can be noted by the doctor during the physical examination. X-rays (diagnostic tests which use invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film) may also be done after birth to evaluate abnormalities of other organs or body parts.

Children's Team

Children's Team

Providers

John Snyder

Division Chief, Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition
Departments

Departments

General and Thoracic Surgery

The pediatric surgical experts at Children’s National in Washington, DC, provide advanced, comprehensive surgical care for infants, children, and teenagers.

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