Thyroglossal Duct Cyst

What is a thyroglossal duct cyst?

A thyroglossal duct cyst is a neck mass or lump that develops from cells and tissues remaining after the formation of the thyroid gland during embryonic development. It is most commonly diagnosed in preschool-aged children or during mid-adolescence, and often appears after an upper respiratory infection when it enlarges and becomes painful.

Prevention & Risk Treatment

Prevention & Risk Treatment

What causes a thyroglossal duct cyst?

A thyroglossal duct cyst is a congenital (present from birth) defect. When the thyroid gland forms during embryonic development, it begins at the base of the tongue and moves down the neck through a canal called the thyroglossal duct. This duct normally disappears once the thyroid reaches its final position in the neck. Sometimes, portions of the duct remain leaving cavities or pockets called cysts. These cysts can fill with fluid or mucus, and may enlarge if they become infected. Very enlarged cysts can cause difficulty swallowing or obstruct breathing passages.

What are the symptoms of a thyroglossal duct cyst?

The following are the most common symptoms of a thyroglossal duct cyst. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

  • A small, soft, round mass in the center front of the neck
  • Tenderness, redness, and swelling of the mass, if infected
  • A small opening in the skin near the mass, with drainage of mucus from the cyst 
  • Difficulty swallowing or breathing

The symptoms of a thyroglossal duct cyst may resemble other neck masses or medical problems. Always consult your child's doctor for a diagnosis.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

How is a thyroglossal duct cyst diagnosed?

Generally, diagnosis is made by physical examination. The mass typically moves upward when the tongue is extended and with swallowing since the thyroglossal duct often connects at the base of the tongue. It is important to determine if the thyroglossal duct cyst contains thyroid tissues. In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for a thyroglossal duct cyst may include the following:

  • Blood tests. These tests assess thyroid function.
  • Ultrasound examination. A diagnostic imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves and a computer to create images of blood vessels, tissues, and organs to evaluate the muscle around the mass. Ultrasounds are used to view internal organs as they function, and to assess blood flow through various vessels.
  • Thyroid scans. A procedure that uses radioactive iodine or technetium (a radioactive metallic element) to reveal any physical abnormalities of the thyroid. 
  • Fine needle aspiration. A procedure that removes cells from the cyst for diagnosis.
Children's Team

Children's Team

Providers

zalzal

George Zalzal

Division Chief, Ear, Nose, and Throat (Otolaryngology)
Departments

Departments

Ear, Nose and Throat (Otolaryngology)

Our pediatric ENT (otolaryngology) experts provide advanced, comprehensive services for children.

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