Bones & Joints (orthopedics)

Pectus Carinatum

Pectus carinatum, sometimes called "pigeon breast," is caused when the breastbone is pushed outward, and occurs only about a third as often as pectus excavatum.

Pectus Excavatum

Pectus excavatum (sometimes called cobbler's chest, sunken chest, or funnel chest) is the most common chest deformity and is caused when several ribs and the sternum grow abnormally.

Psoriatic Arthritis

Psoriatic arthritis is a form of arthritis associated with psoriasis, a chronic skin and nail disease characterized by red, scaly rashes and thick, pitted fingernails.

Pediatric Rheumatic Fever

Rheumatic fever is a complicated, involved disease that affects the joints, skin, heart, blood vessels, and brain. 


There are two forms of scleroderma: localized scleroderma and systemic sclerosis.


A normal spine, when viewed from behind, appears straight. However, a spine affected by scoliosis shows evidence of a lateral, or side-by-side curvature, with the spine looking like an "S" or "C" and a rotation of the back bones (vertebrae), giving the appearance that the person is leaning to one side.

Skeletal Dysplasias

Learn more about the causes, symptoms and treatments for skeletal dysplasia, a bone disorder that causes dwarfism.

Spina Bifida

Spina bifida is a condition in which there is abnormal development of the back bones, spinal cord, surrounding nerves, and the fluid-filled sac that surrounds the spinal cord.